Nov. 11, 2009
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Conducted by HSC and the New Hampshire Insurance Department, the combined quantitative/qualitative research examined the impact of public reporting of the bundled price, including physician and facility payments, for about 30 common services, mostly performed in hospital outpatient departments and freestanding facilities. Unlike most other state price transparency initiatives that only report hospital charges, HealthCost reports more useful provider-specific, insurer-specific median cost estimates for each service based on insurer claims data.
Despite the attention that price transparency has received from policy makers, there has been a dearth of research to date examining what effects, if any, public price reporting has on overall price levels and price variation across health care providers. When prices are transparent-publicly reported and known to all parties-price differences across providers can be expected to decrease as low-cost providers are motivated to raise prices and high-cost providers come under pressure to lower prices.
However, the study found public price reporting had no impact on price variation across providers, a result attributed in part to the lack of competition among providers and few incentives for consumers to compare providers based on price. As part of the study, HSC researchers interviewed New Hampshire insurers, hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, imaging centers and policy experts to gain their perspectives on the impact of the HealthCost program.
"The study confirms that market dynamics, fueled by the respective market shares of hospitals and health plans, trump transparency," said Maribeth Shannon, director of the California HealthCare Foundation Market and Policy Monitor Program. "Publicly reporting negotiated prices seems to have little effect on price variability."
"Despite the lack of hard evidence, some observers suggested that HealthCostalong with other state price transparency initiativeshas helped to focus employer and policy maker attention on provider price differences and caused some hospitals to moderate their demands for rate increases," said Ha T. Tu, M.P.A., an HSC senior researcher and coauthor of the study with Johanna R. Lauer, a former HSC health research analyst.
Researchers focused on price variation rather than price levels because it is difficult, if not impossible, to compare pre-transparency and post-transparency prices and ascribe any observed difference to a particular price transparency program, because there are a multitude of other influences that might impact price levels. Such factors include competitive conditions, technological innovation and other policy initiatives and developments.
The studys findings are detailed in a new HSC Issue BriefImpact of Health Care Price Transparency on Price Variation: The New Hampshire Experienceavailable online at www.hschange.org/CONTENT/1095/. Other key findings include:
The Center for Studying Health System Change is a nonpartisan policy research organization committed to providing objective and timely research on the nations changing health system to help inform policy makers and contribute to better health care policy. HSC, based in Washington, D.C., is funded in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and is affiliated with Mathematica Policy Research.